Golden, 5-19 in his first two years at Temple, interviewed twice for the job that opened after the Bruins fired Karl Dorrell.
In a statement from Temple on Wednesday, Golden said he was "flattered" to have been contacted by UCLA, but instead looked forward to a bright future at Temple.
"UCLA is a world-class institution, and athletic director Dan Guerrero is a first-class person," Golden said. "However, we are on the brink of something truly special here at Temple."
Golden led the Owls to a 4-8 record this season, their highest win total in five years. Temple has not had a winning record since 1990.
UCLA also met with Baltimore Ravens offensive coordinator Rick Neuheisel, who played quarterback for the Bruins and was the head coach at Washington and Colorado.
Defensive coordinator DeWayne Walker served as interim head coach for UCLA's 17-16 loss to No. 19 Brigham Young in the Las Vegas Bowl on Saturday.