The move was announced after a 4-3 victory in 13 innings at Washington on Saturday.
Manager Joe Torre did not say who will take Padilla's spot in the rotation Tuesday against the Mets. He said the team would be calling up right-hander Jon Link from Triple-A Albuquerque before Sunday's game against the Nationals.
Padilla, the Dodgers' opening day starter, gave up four runs -- three earned -- in six innings of an 8-5 loss to Cincinnati on Thursday.
Padilla said his arm bothered him in spring training, felt better, then the problem returned Thursday.
He is 1-1 with a 7.06 ERA in four starts this season.