The Red Sox also recalled outfielder Daniel Nava from Triple-A Pawtucket and placed utilityman Eric Patterson on the 15-day disabled list with a neck strain.
Left-hander Dustin Richardson was optioned to Pawtucket following Sunday's game at Texas.
Pedroia was in the lineup, batting second, for Tuesday night's game against the Los Angeles Angels.
It was Pedroia's 27th birthday. The 2008 AL MVP has missed 44 games since being placed on the disabled list on June 26 due to a broken bone in his left foot.