Brooks was ordered to appear June 6 in Boone District Court on a complaint filed this week by Destiny Rosich. Based on the complaint, prosecutors charged Brooks with fourth-degree assault, a misdemeanor that carries up to a year in prison.
Rosich's complaint said Brooks got into a loud disagreement with one of her neighbors in nearby Florence on April 9. When she tried to intervene, Brooks punched her in the left eye, temporarily knocking her unconscious, the complaint said.
Police were called to the scene but didn't witness the alleged altercation. Rosich was told she could file a complaint.
A Bengals spokesman said the team had no comment because of the preliminary nature of the case.
Brooks missed most of last season with torn groin muscles. The Bengals took him in the 2006 supplemental draft, shortly before linebacker Odell Thurman began serving an NFL suspension that would last for two seasons.
Brooks played three seasons at Virginia before being kicked off the team.
Last month, the Bengals released receiver Chris Henry after he was arrested for the fifth time. Henry was one of 10 Bengals players arrested during a 14-month span from 2006-07.