Coach Dennis Allen said Tuesday that Ford decided to have the operation after consulting with a specialist in North Carolina when the injury did not heal as quickly as hoped.
Ford hurt his foot on Aug. 17 in an exhibition game against Arizona. Ford missed six games with the same injury last season.
Allen said the team is considering its options to replace Ford. The Raiders could place Ford on a new short-term injured reserve list, which would sideline him for at least six weeks.
Ford has 44 catches for 749 yards and three touchdowns in 24 games over two seasons. He has also scored two touchdowns rushing and returned four kicks for TDs in his career.