General Manager Scott Howson announced the move Sunday, before the Blue Jackets' night game at Anaheim.
The 21-year-old Kubalik has tallied seven goals, four assists and 20 penalty minutes this season in 24 games with Springfield.
He played for Columbus in four games last season and had two assists in his NHL debut at Washington in March.
Kubalik is a native of the Czech Republic, where he played in two leagues from 2005-09. He was the Blue Jackets' sixth pick in the 2008 entry draft.