The 27-year-old Italian had lost eight previous finals on the tour, while Austria's Meusburger played her first final.
"A great relief ... but I didn't put pressure on myself," Schiavone said. "I'm a different player now and I just went out today to enjoy myself and hopefully win."
The top-seeded Schiavone controlled the first set with high topspin strokes, which kept Meusberger away from the net. Schiavone broke three times in the first set and dropped her own serve once, though she had to fight off break points in two other service games.
"The match was much closer than the result shows," said Meusburger, who was also beaten by Schiavone in the first round of this year's French Open. "Anyway, the final was a good experience for me and it will help me to further raise my game."
Meusburger, who admitted that she had been very nervous, made fewer mistakes in the second set, but she double-faulted at 4-3 to give the Italian another break. Schiavone used her second match point to wrap up the victory.
The 31st-ranked Schiavone was the first winner of the Gastein Ladies, a new tournament on the WTA Tour calendar.
Tournament director Sandra Reichel said she wanted the event to be rescheduled to another week next year to again avoid it coinciding with the ATP tournament in Kitzbuehel.