Cease is the first major league pitcher to win his first eight starts against another team since Jamie Moyer started 10-0 against the Marlins in 2006-08.
''I've been really locked in the last few times I've faced them, and that makes me hard to hit,'' he said. ''They've got a good lineup, though, so I've been lucky enough to have this much success.''
Brian Goodwin, called up from the minors on Thursday, homered and drove in five runs in his White Sox debut.
''It was great to have a chance to show my new teammates that I'm going to be able to help them win games,'' said Goodwin, who signed with Chicago as a free agent last month. ''This is the first team that ever drafted me, and even though I didn't sign out of high school, I've still always had some love for the White Sox.
''Plus this seemed like a team I could help win some games,'' he said.
Cease (5-2) allowed two runs on four hits in five innings before being removed with a 13-2 lead. He walked one and struck out seven and saw his career ERA against Detroit rise to 2.09.
''He was pitching fine, but he had too many long innings in the dugout and we didn't want his arm to get cold,'' White Sox manager Tony La Russa said. ''We had him throw in the cage a few times, but you can only do that so many times.''
Tigers starter Jose Urena (2-6) allowed eight runs while getting only five outs.
Doubles by Tim Anderson and Goodwin made it 1-0 after three pitches, Urena hit Yasmani Grandal and Jose Abreu reached on an error to load the bases.
Yermin Mercedes hit a two-run single through the drawn-in infield, and the runners moved up on Eric Haase's passed ball.
Urena struck out Adam Eaton, drawing a sarcastic cheer from the crowd, and escaped the inning without further damage.
Detroit also scored quickly, with Harold Castro hitting a two-run homer on Cease's seventh pitch, but he struck out the next three hitters.
The White Sox made it 6-2 in the second on Goodwin's three-run homer off Urena.
''Obviously, he didn't have his best stuff today,'' Tigers manager A.J. Hinch said. ''It was big for us to get two runs in the first after they got three, but we weren't executing on the mound and our bats never did anything else.''
Daniel Norris came in from the Tigers bullpen with two out and two on, walked his first batter, then allowed a two-run single to Leury Garcia. After another walk, Danny Mendick's second of the inning, Norris got out of the inning.
Chicago scored five more runs in the fifth off Tigers relievers Beau Burrows and Alex Lange and scored twice in the eighth off catcher Jake Rogers.
''I was trying to throw softly, but I couldn't get the ball to the plate,'' said Rogers, whose velocity jumped from 66 mph to 78 in mid-inning. ''Once I started throwing a little bit harder, I felt a lot more comfortable.''
Utilityman Harold Castro pitched a scoreless ninth while Rogers made his professional debut at third base. Castro has pitched two innings this year without allowing a hit or a run.
The Tigers moved 3B Jeimer Candelario from the bereavement list to the 10-day injured list. Candelario remains in the Dominican Republic to deal with a family emergency.
Burrows, who left the game with an illness, was optioned to Triple-A Toledo after the game. The Tigers will call up a pitcher on Sunday.
Mendick scored on Anderson's fifth-inning single, but only after protecting his health. Mendick was on second when Anderson's 101-mph line drive came directly at him, forcing him to dive to the ground before getting back up to score.
The White Sox will go for a series sweep on Sunday, with Carlos Rodon (5-2, 1.96) starting against Tigers opener Kyle Funkhouser (0-0, 2.70) in a bullpen game for Detroit.
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