The ACC has taken action against Virginia Tech and Louisville, two of the schools found to have received confidential gameplan information from Tommy Elrod, the former Wake player and assistant coach turned radio broadcaster, in advance of their contests with the Demon Deacons.

Each school has been fined $25,000, the largest fine allowed by league bylaws.

"I am deeply disturbed something like this would occur, and regardless of the degree of involvement, the protection of the competitive integrity of our games is fundamental to any athletic contest," said ACC Commissioner John Swofford. "Sportsmanship and ethical values are at the core of competitive integrity and in these instances, those were missing. The expectation, regardless of the sport, is that any athletics department staff members would immediately communicate with their supervisor if they are approached by someone from another institution with proprietary information."

Louisville athletic director Tom Jurich released a statement Wednesday confirming that Lonnie Galloway, a former Wake assistant with Elrod on Jim Grobe's staff, received privileged information before the Cardinals' victory on Nov. 12. Virginia Tech athletic director Whit Babcock confirmed Thursday that the Hokies were contacted by Wake Forest in the investigation, stating that he was disappointed to find out members of his staff accepted information from Elrod.

"We have recently been made aware that a former Wake Forest staff member provided one of our former assistant coaches one game plan information prior to our game in 2014," Babcock said. "We have no indication at this time that any of this information was shared with other staff members, nor utilized during the game itself."

According to the News & Observer, teams confirmed not be involved with Elrod or contacted by the school: Louisiana-Monroe, Utah State, Florida State, Syracuse, Boston College, Clemson, NC State, Duke, North Carolina, Notre Dame and Virginia.

In the case of Army (2014, 2015), Indiana (2015) and Louisville (2016), Elrod previously worked with a member of the opposing coaching staff.